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Costa D'Avorio

The population of the Ivory Coast is approximately 18,013,409 inhabitants, with an average density of 57 units per square km; 46% of the population lives in urban areas. In the country there are more than sixty ethnic groups, including Akan, voltaic, mande of north and south, krou. Among the most serious environmental problems that the Ivory Coast has to face there are the deforestation and water pollution. Much of the forest reserves of the country have been destroyed due to an ever increasing demand of the timber industry. The water quality is seriously deteriorated, as well as for domestic sewage not properly treated, for the entry of chemicals used in agriculture and industrial discharges.

6.1% of the territory of the Ivory Coast was protected; the two main national parks, Tai and Komoè, have been declared World Heritage Sites in 1982 and in 1983. The country has ratified international environmental agreements on biodiversity, climate change, disposal of harmful waste, the Convention law of the Sea, the abolition of nuclear tests, the species at risk of extinction, desertification, ozone layer protection, protection of wetlands and treated for tropical timber in 1983 and 1994.

The public facilities are very poor and unreliable. The private health facilities in Abidjan are good although very expensive and require prepayment of care. In Abidjan, but also in the rest of the country, there are many pharmacies supplies of medicines especially French medicines.

Diseases of endemic level are different: malaria is extended throughout the country and in some cases is particularly severe and resistant to quinine chlorine. Cholera, typhoid, tetanus, tuberculosis, hepatitis A and B, in addition to malaria prophylaxis. Widespread AIDS, especially among the young and in urban environments.





Togo is one of the poorest countries in the world. Life expectancy is 50 years, the mortality rate of children between 0 and 5 years is estimated between 125 and 141 per 1000 (in practice, 2,500 children die every week).

1/3 of children do not attend schools, and 1/3 of children in one year are not vaccinated; 75% of men and 47% women know how to write. The birth rate is 4.6 x woman.

Until 30 years ago was considered the Switzerland of Africa, but has been abandoned by the international community, for a kind of retaliation against his dictator, who commanded in Togo for nearly 40 years: now is a heap of memories , decadent and crumbling buildings. On 25 April 2005, after the death of the dictator, were held free elections and currently applies a democracy (for what can be understood by this term in an African country): there remain some poverty and difficulties to raise the situation.

Togo's great about 2 times the Emilia Romagna and has a population of 5,556,612 inhabitants, with a density of 97 inhabitants / km² (Emilia Romagna. 4,900,000 and density of 111 inhabitants/km²). The population growth rate of 3.1% is one of the highest in the world. Lomè is the capital. Ethnic groups: Ewe 45%, Kabre 23%, Mina 6%, other 26%. Border countries: Ghana to WEST, Burkina Faso to NORTH, Benin to EAST. Climate: Equatorial. Language: French (official), Ewe, Kabre. Religion: Animist 50%, Christian 30%, Muslim 20%. Currency: CFA (1 EURO = 600 CFA).

Average annual income per capita is about 300 euros; average per capita income in Bologna is about 20,000 euros per year! 32.3% of the inhabitants of Togo live below the poverty line, with half of the poor who live in extreme poverty.



Burkina Faso

Burkina Faso covers an area of 274 200 square kilometers and has about 13 million inhabitants, divided into 60 ethnic groups, that will become about 20 million in 2025. In fact the country has a relatively high population growth rate of about 3%.

Its climate is arid, Sudan-Sahelian, characterized by a long dry season and a short rainy season; but the rainfall is very irregular and its soil is mostly represented by the savannah, poor and not very fertile.

The country's economy is essentially a subsistence economy, the industry is poorly developed, is therefore exclusively based on pastoralism and agriculture practiced by 80% of the active population of Burkina Faso with rudimentary techniques during the five months of the rainy season (from June to October). Agricultural production mainly of family consumption is based on cereals (sorghum, millet, maize, rice, fonio and beans) with a single annual crop and its performance is strongly influenced by the change in time.

Besides that, especially in the north of the country, the progressive increase of desertification (from 3 to 5 km annually) resulting in loss of soil fertility helps to increase the poverty of the population that leaves massively campaigns fueling a runaway urban growth. It is estimated that 46.5% of the population lives in a state of poverty that they can not meet even the most basic needs.

Malnutrition, therefore, is a very serious problem and present in Burkina Faso, especially childhood is the victim; especially the 29% of children under 5 years has a chronic undernourishment. Diarrhea as a cause or consequence of malnutrition is the second leading cause of infant mortality between 0 and 5 years. Even 14% of women of childbearing age has a chronic energy deficiency, a situation that contributes to increased maternal and neonatal mortality. Only 25% of the population has access to potable water.

The health situation in Burkina is rather worrying, the infant mortality rate is very high, especially among children under 5 years of age due to malaria. Other diseases such as dysentery, intestinal parasites, skin and bronchopulmonary infections undermine children's health; as throughout the African continent here AIDS is rampant.

Burkina Faso therefore remains one of the poorest countries in the world with a very low human development index that classify it in 174th position out of 177 countries surveyed. This index, based essentially on criteria that assess the quality of life of the population (health, education, power, per capita GDP, ...), indicates the extreme poverty of this people.

The illiteracy rate is very high: only 2 out of 5 children have access to the educational system, families can not bear the costs of their children to school due to extreme poverty in which they live.




To say Madagascar is to say that extreme poverty, that could not be imagined. Extreme poverty you see, touch, breathe in housing, education, health, in appearing unarmed and defenseless, but crying and not let those who sleep there faces, with a little heart. Millions of children, beautiful and simple as all, with an appearance of modesty, of fear in showing their smile with bad teeth. Children are serene, malnourished, with already inside the germs of diseases larger than themselves. It is the fourth largest island in the world, after Greenland, New Guinea and Borneo. The surface is one and a half Italy. The central plateau of average altitude of 1200 meters, reaches 2,876 meters. with Maromokotro and 2,642 mt. with Ankaratra mountains. Most of the people live in agricultural or fishing villages. The only major city of the plateau is Antananarivo.

Madagascar resources are potentially rich, but farming techniques, the sales organization, and the lack of appropriate roads and transport make slow development. Coffee is grown for export, with vanilla, clove, tobacco, sugar cane, peanuts, castor, textile plants. For domestic consumption are produced rice, cassava, potatoes, corn. From the woods fine woods like mahogany, rosewood, ebony.

Madagascar has about 11.5 million inhabitants, of whom about one million are in the capital Antananarivo. The main religion is animistic for 50%; below 25% of Catholics, 20% of Protestants and only 5% of Muslims. 70% of the population lives below the poverty line worldwide. Almost half the children of Madagascar under 5 are malnourished.

Poor infrastructure, especially roads, makes it difficult for farmers bring their products to market, and geographic isolation of Madagascar from the rest of the world increases costs for businesses. All that Madagascar produces or wants to buy from other countries must be shipped by air or sea. A weak education system makes it difficult for young Malagasy to find a job outside the agricultural sector; moreover, only very few people in Madagascar have access to technology and the Internet. Finally, the damage done to the area have reduced the capacity of the farmers of the island to produce large quantities of food. All these factors contribute to poverty in Madagascar.

The situation, however, could improve. In 2005 Madagascar announced to have found large amounts of oil. This resource will play an important role in the future of the country, in addition to the mining industry, the production of precious stones (sapphires in Madagascar are many) and tourism. It is hoped that ecotourism, a form of tourism that minimizes the impact on the environment, can contribute to economic growth in Madagascar and to preserve natural areas and wildlife.

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